From Integrating to Learning: Insights from Spanish L2 Multiple Documents Selection in Reading Tasks




Comprehension, second language instruction, document selection, integrated education, Spanish


Previous literature has focused on investigating the use of sources in the classroom and how much they contribute to building a coherent mental representation of the texts. These studies explain how integration from multiple document sources occurs; however, their results are limited to the first language and do not inform about the types of these sources or how they are used. In this sense, the objective of this case study is to identify the types of sources used in four courses of a student exchange program in a Chilean University. The data was collected through focus groups with sixty students and in-depth interviews with four professors to determine in what sense the type of document selected could contribute to the learning process. A content analysis was carried out using Nvivo 12 to report on the pedagogical implications of using these sources in a Spanish L2 teaching setting.


Download data is not yet available.


Andreassen, R., & Bråten, I. (2013). Teachers’ source evaluation self‐efficacy predicts their use of relevant source features when evaluating the trustworthiness of web sources on special education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(5), 821–836.

Anmarkrud, Ø., Bråten, I., & Strømsø, H. I. (2014). Multiple-documents literacy: Strategic processing, source awareness, and argumentation when reading multiple conflicting documents. Learning and Individual Differences, (30), 64–76.

Anmarkrud, Ø., McCrudden, M. T., Bråten, I., & Strømsø, H. I. (2013). Task-oriented reading of multiple documents: Online comprehension processes and offline products. Instructional Science, 41(5), 873–894.

Bloome, D., Kim, M., Hong, H., & Brady, J. (2018). Multiple source use when reading and writing in literature and language arts in classroom contexts. In J. L. G. Braasch, I. Bråten, & M. T. McCrudden (Eds.), Handbook of multiple source use (pp. 254–266). Routledge.

Braasch, J. L., Lawless, K. A., Goldman, S. R., Manning, F. H., Gomez, K. W., & MacLeod, S. M (2009). Evaluating search results: An empirical analysis of middle school students’ use of source attributes to select useful sources. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 41(1), 63–82.

Brand‐Gruwel, S., Kammerer, Y., Van Meeuwen, L., & Van Gog, T. (2017). Source evaluation of domain experts and novices during Web search. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33(3), 234–251.

Brante, E. W., & Strømsø, H. I. (2018). Sourcing in text comprehension: A review of interventions targeting sourcing skills. Educational Psychology Review, 30(3), 773–799.

Bråten, I., Ferguson, L. E., Anmarkrud, Ø., & Strømsø, H. I. (2013). Prediction of learning and comprehension when adolescents read multiple texts: The roles of word-level processing, strategic approach, and reading motivation. Reading and Writing, 26(3), 321–348.

Bråten, I., McCrudden, M. T., Stang Lund, E., Brante, E. W., & Strømsø, H. I. (2018). Task‐oriented learning with multiple documents: Effects of topic familiarity, author expertise, and content relevance on document selection, processing, and use. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(3), 345–365.

Bråten, I., Stadtler, M., & Salmerón, L. (2018). The role of sourcing in discourse comprehension. In M. Schober, D. Rapp, & M. Britt (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of discourse processes (pp. 141–166). Routledge.

Bråten, I., & Strømsø, H. I. (2010). When law students read multiple documents about global warming: Examining the role of topic-specific beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing. Instructional Science, 38(6), 635–657.

Rouet, J. F., & Britt, M. A. (2011). Relevance processes in multiple document comprehension. In M. T. McCrudden, J. P. Magliano, & G. Schraw (Eds.), Text relevance and learning from text (pp. 19–52). Information Age.

Britt, M. A., & Rouet, J. F. (2012). Learning with multiple documents: Component skills and their acquisition. In M. J. Lawson & J. R. Kirby (Eds.), Enhancing the quality of learning: Dispositions, instruction, and learning processes (pp. 276–314). Cambridge University Press.

Britt, M. A., & Rouet, J. F. (2020). Multiple document comprehension. In L. Zhang (Ed.), The oxford encyclopedia of educational psychology (pp.10–25). Oxford University Press.

Britt, M. A., Rouet, J. F., & Braasch, J. L. (2013). Documents as entities: Extending the situation model theory of comprehension. In M. A. Britt, S. R. Goldman, & J.-F. Rouet (Eds.), Reading: From words to multiple texts (pp. 160–179). Routledge.

Britt, M. A., Rouet, J. F., & Durik, A. (2018). Representations and processes in multiple source use. In J. L. G. Braasch, I. Bråten, & M.T. McCrudden (Eds.), Handbook of multiple source use (pp. 17–33). Routledge.

Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 37–46.

Ferguson, L. E., Bråten, I., & Strømsø, H. I. (2012). Epistemic cognition when students read multiple documents containing conflicting scientific evidence: A think-aloud study. Learning and Instruction, 22(2), 103–120.

Goldman, S. R. (2004). Cognitive aspects of constructing meaning through and across multiple texts. In N. Shuart‐Faris & D. Bloome (Eds.), Uses of intertextuality in classroom and educational research (pp. 317–352). Information Age.

Goldman, S. R., & Bisanz, G. L. (2002). Toward a functional analysis of scientific genres: Implications for understanding and learning processes. In J. Otero, J. A. León, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), The psychology of science text comprehension (pp. 19–50). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Goldman, S. R., Braasch, J. L., Wiley, J., Graesser, A. C., & Brodowinska, K. (2012). Comprehending and learning from Internet sources: Processing patterns of better and poorer learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 47(4), 356–381.

Goldman, S. R., Britt, M. A., Brown, W., Cribb, G., George, M., Greenleaf, C., Lee, C. Shanahan, C., & Project READI. (2016). Disciplinary literacies and learning to read for understanding: A conceptual framework for disciplinary literacy. Educational Psychologist, 51(2), 219–246.

Guerrini, M. (2009). CLIL materials as scaffolds to learning. CLIL Practice: Perspectives from the Field, 1, 74–84.

Guthrie, J. T., Braasch, J. L. G., Bråten, I., & McCrudden, M. T. (2018). Promoting multiple-text comprehension through motivation in the classroom. In J. L. G. Braasch, I. Bråten, & M. McCrudden (Eds.), Handbook of multiple source use (pp. 382–400). Routledge.

Huberman, A. M., & Miles, M. B. (1994). Data management and analysis methods. In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 428–444). Sage Publications.

Karimi, M. N. (2018a). The mediated/unmediated contributions of language proficiency and prior knowledge to L2 multiple-texts comprehension: A structural equation modelling analysis. Applied Linguistics, 39(6), 912–932.

Karimi, M. N. (2018b). Prior topical knowledge and L2 proficiency as determinants of strategic processing in English for Academic Purposes multi-texts comprehension. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 12(3), 235–246.

Karimi, M. N., & Alibakhshi, G. (2014). EFL learners’ text processing strategies across comprehension vs. integration reading task conditions. System, 46, 96–104.

Kintsch, W. (1986). Learning from text. Cognition and Instruction, 3(2), 87–108.

List, A., Alexander, P. A., & Stephens, L. A. (2017). Trust but verify: Examining the association between students’ sourcing behaviors and ratings of text trustworthiness. Discourse Processes, 54(2), 83–104.

List, A., Du, H., Wang, Y., & Lee, H. Y. (2019). Toward a typology of integration: Examining the documents model framework. Contemporary Educational Psychology, (58), 228–242.

Narvaez, D., Van Den Broek, P., & Ruiz, A. B. (1999). The influence of reading purpose on inference generation and comprehension in reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 488.

Mangen, A., Walgermo, B. R., & Brønnick, K. (2013). Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on reading comprehension. International journal of educational research, (58), 61–68.

Maxwell, J. (2012). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. Sage publications.

McCrudden, M. T. (2018). Text relevance and multiple‐source use. In J. L. G. Braasch, I. Bråten, & M.T. McCrudden (Eds.), ­Handbook of multiple source use (pp. 168–183). Routledge.


McCrudden, M. T., & Schraw, G. (2007). Relevance and goal-focusing in text processing. Educational psychology review, 19(2), 113–139.

McCrudden, M. T., Stenseth, T., Bråten, I., & Strømsø, H. I. (2016). The effects of topic familiarity, author expertise, and content relevance on Norwegian students’ document selection: A mixed methods study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(2), 147–162.

McNamara, D. S., & Kintsch, W. (1996). Learning from texts: Effects of prior knowledge and text coherence. Discourse processes, 22(3), 247–288.

McNamara, D. S., Kintsch, E., Songer, N. B., & Kintsch, W. (1996). Are good texts always better? Interactions of text coherence, background knowledge, and levels of understanding in learning from text. Cognition and Instruction, 14(1), 1–43.

Milne, E. D., Llinares, A., & Morton, T. (2010). CLIL across contexts: A ­scaffolding framework for CLIL teacher education. Current Research on CLIL, 19(3), 12–20.­education

Nikula, T., Dafouz, E., Moore, P., & Smit, U. (2016). Conceptualising integration in CLIL and multilingual education. Multilingual Matters.

Perfetti, C. A., Britt, M. A., & Georgi, M. C. (2012). Text-based learning and reasoning: Studies in history. Routledge.

Perfetti, C. A., Rouet, J. F., & Britt, M. A. (1999). Toward a theory of documents representation. In H. Van Oostendorp & S. R. Goldman (Eds.), The construction of mental representation during reading (pp. 99–122). ­Erlbaum.

Pornpitakpan, C. (2004). The persuasiveness of source credibility: A critical review of five decades’ evidence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(2), 243–281.

Rouet, J. F., & Britt, M. A. (2011). Relevance processes in multiple document comprehension. In M. T. McCrudden, J. P. Magliano, & G. Schraw (Eds.), Text relevance and learning from text (pp. 19–52). IAP Information Age Publishing.

Rouet, J. F., & Britt, M. A. (2014). Multimedia learning from multiple documents. In R. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. (pp. 813–841). Cambridge University Press.

Rouet, J. F., Britt, M. A., & Durik, A. M. (2017). RESOLV: Readers’ representation of reading contexts and tasks. Educational Psychologist, 52(3), 200–215.

Rouet, J. F., Britt, M. A., Mason, R. A., & Perfetti, C. A. (1996). Using multiple sources of evidence to reason about history. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(3), 478.

Rouet, J. F., Favart, M., Britt, M. A., & Perfetti, C. A. (1997). Studying and using multiple documents in history: Effects of discipline expertise. Cognition and Instruction, 15(1), 85–106.

Salmerón, L., Gil, L., & Bråten, I. (2018a). Using eye-tracking to assess sourcing during multiple document reading: A critical analysis. Frontline Learning Research, 6(3), 105–122.

Salmerón, L., Gil, L., & Bråten, I. (2018b). Effects of reading real versus print-out versions of multiple documents on students’ sourcing and integrated understanding. Contemporary Educational Psychology, (52), 25–35.

Salmerón, L., Strømsø, H. I., Kammerer, Y., Stadtler, M., & Van den Broek, P. (2018c). Comprehension processes in digital reading. In M. Barzillai, J. Thomson, S. Schroeder, & P. van den Broek (Eds.), Learning to read in a digital world (pp. 91–120). John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Schraw, G., McCrudden, M. T., & Magliano, J. P. (2011). Text relevance and learning from text. Information Age Publishing.

Sendur, K. A., van Boxtel, C., & van Drie, J. (2021). Undergraduate L2 students’ performance when evaluating historical sources for reliability. English for Specific Purposes, 61, 17–31.

Shanahan, C., Shanahan, T., & Misischia, C. (2011). Analysis of expert readers in three disciplines: History, mathematics, and chemistry. Journal of Literacy Research, 43(4), 393–429.

Stadtler, M., Scharrer, L., Skodzik, T., & Bromme, R. (2014). Comprehending multiple documents on scientific controversies: Effects of reading goals and signaling rhetorical relationships. Discourse Processes, 51(1–2), 93–116.

Stearns, P. N., Seixas, P., & Wineburg, S. (2000). Knowing, teaching, and learning history: National and international perspectives. New York University Press.

Stenseth, T., & Strømsø, H. I. (2019). To read or not to read: A qualitative study of students’ justifications for document selection in task-oriented reading. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 63(5), 771–788.

Strømsø, H. (2017). Multiple models of multiple-text comprehension: A commentary. Educational Psychologist, 52(3), 216–224.

Strømsø, H. I., Bråten, I., & Britt, M. A. (2010). Reading multiple texts about climate change: The relationship between memory for sources and text comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 20(3), 192–204.

Sylvén, L. K. (2019). Investigating content and language integrated learning: Insights from Swedish high schools. Multilingual Matters.

Van Dijk, T. A., & Kintsch, W. (1983). Strategies of discourse comprehension. Academic Press.

Van Meter, P., List, A., Lombardi, D., & Kendeou, P. (2020). Handbook of learning from multiple representations and perspectives. Routledge.

Weber, K., & Mejia-Ramos, J. P. (2013). The influence of sources in the reading of mathematical text: A reply to Shanahan, Shanahan, and Misischia. Journal of Literacy Research, 45(1), 87–96.




How to Cite

Soliman, M. (2021). From Integrating to Learning: Insights from Spanish L2 Multiple Documents Selection in Reading Tasks. Latin American Journal of Content &Amp; Language Integrated Learning, 14(1), 151–177.