Challenges and Strategies on the Content and Language Integrated Learning Approach (CLIL): A Case Study from the Turkish Context
Keywords:Bilingualism, content and language integrated learning, English as a foreign language, language acquisition, science and math education in the target language
Limited studies investigate the high school teachers’ challenges and strategies while teaching science and mathematics in English as the target language through the content and language integrated learning (CLIL) approach. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the challenges that science and math teachers encounter and the strategies they employ while fostering students’ development of proficiency in English as the target language in physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics courses in the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and International Baccalaureate Diploma Program (IBDP). The study utilized various qualitative tools such as semi-structured interviews, open-ended questionnaires, and lesson observations to analyze science and math teachers’ strategies and challenges at a case school in eastern Turkey. The study revealed that as part of the CLIL approach, the participant teachers indicated various challenges such as a lack of vocabulary repertoire, translation problems, and weak foundational knowledge. They used common strategies such as group work interactions, interdisciplinary activities, individualized feedback, the promotion of higher-order thinking skills, inquiry-based learning, and reinforcement of language used to deal with these challenges. The study presents further implications for good practices and recommendations to resolve challenges.
Abedi, J., & Lord, C. (2001). The language factor in mathematics test. Applied Measurement in Education, 14(3), 219-234. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15324818AME1403_2
Admiraal, W., Westhoff, G., & de Bot, K. (2006). Evaluation of bilingual secondary education in the Netherlands: Students’ language proficiency in English. Educational Research and Evaluation, 12(1), 75-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803610500392160
Alcaraz-Mármol, G. (2018). Trained and non-trained language teachers on CLIL methodology: Teachers’ facts and opinions about the CLIL approach in the primary education context in Spain. LACLIL, 11(1), 39-64. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2012.5.1.4
Baker, C. (2002). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Banegas, D. L. (2012). CLIL teacher development: Challenges and experiences. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 5(1), 46-56. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2012.5.1.4
Bellés-Calvera, L. (2018). Teaching Music in English: A Content-Based Instruction Model in Secondary Education. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 11(1), 109-139. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2018.11.1.6
Brinkmann, S., & Kvale, S. (2015). Interviews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing. Sage Publications.
Campillo, J. M., Sánchez, R., & Miralles, P. (2019). Primary Teachers’ Perceptions of CLIL Implementation in Spain. English Language Teaching, 12(4), 149-156. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v12n4p149
Charunsri, K. (2019). The Challenges of Implementing Content Language Integrated Learning in Tertiary Education in Thailand: A Review and Implication of Materials. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 10(4), 125-129. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.10n.4p.125
Coonan, C. M. (2007). Insider Views of the CLIL Class through Teacher Self-observation–Introspection. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10(5), 625-646. https://doi.org/10.2167/beb463.0
Coyle, D. (2007). Content and language integrated learning: Towards a connected research agenda for CLIL. Pedagogies, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10(5), 543-562. https://doi.org/10.2167/beb459.0
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.
Dalton-Puffer, C. (2011). Content-and-Language Integrated Learning: From Practice to Principles? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 182-204.
Darn, S. (2006). Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): A European Overview. Teacher Development Unit, School of Foreign Languages, Izmir University of Economics..
de Graaff, R., Koopman, G. J., Anikina, Y., & Westhoff, G. (2007). An Observation Tool for Effective L2 Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10(5), 603-624. https://doi.org/10.2167/beb462.0
Hashmi, U. M. (2019). Exploring EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of CLIL and Its Implementation in the Saudi EFL Context. International Education Studies, 12(10), 114-122. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v12n10p114
IB. (2008a). Towards a continuum of international education. The International Baccalaureate.
Lazarevic, N. (2019). CLIL Teachers’ Reflections and Attitudes: Surviving at the Deep end. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1703897
Lueg, K., & Lueg, R. (2015). Why do students choose English as a medium of instruction? A Bourdieusian perspective on the study strategies of
non-native English speakers. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(1), 5-30. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2013.0009
Mahan, K. R., Brevik, L. M., & Ødegaard, M. (2021). Characterizing CLIL teaching: new insights from a lower secondary classroom. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 24(3), 401-418. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1472206
McDougald, J. S. (2016). CLIL Approaches in Education: Opportunities, Challenges, or Threats? Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 9(2), 253-266. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2016.9.2.1
Moore, P., & Lorenzo, F. (2015). Task-Based Learning and Content and Language Integrated Learning Materials Design: Process and Product. Language Learning Journal. 43(3), 334-357. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2015.1053282
Ouazizi, K. (2016). The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English). Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 9(1), 110-137. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2016.9.1.5
Pavón-Vázquez, V. P., & Rubio, F. (2013). Teachers’ concerns about the introduction of CLIL programmes. Porta Linguarum, 14, 45-58.
Rodriguez Bonces, J. (2012). Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): Considerations in the Colombian Context. GIST Education and Learning Research Journal, 6, 177-189.
Roiha, A. S. (2014). Teachers’ views on differentiation in content and language integrated learning (CLIL): Perceptions, practices and challenges. Language and Education, 28(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2012.748061
Rubtcova, M., & Kaisarova, V. (2016). Implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Programmes in Public Administration: Russian Students’ and Matriculants’ Opinion about Their First CLIL Experience. Teaching Public Administration, 34(3), 229-246. https://doi.org/10.1177/0144739415620950
San Isidro, X. (2018). Innovations and Challenges in CLIL Implementation in Europe. Theory Into Practice, 57(3), 185-195. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2018.1484038
Sawir, E. (2005). Language difficulties of international students in Australia. The effects of prior learning experience. International Education Journal, 6(5), 567-580.
Siqueira, D. S. P., Landau, J., & Paraná, R. A. (2018). Innovations and Challenges in CLIL Implementation in South America. Theory into Practice, 57(3), 196-203. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2018.1484033
Surmont, J., Struys, E., Van Den Noort, M., & Van De Craen, P. (2016). The Effects of CLIL on Mathematical Content Learning: A Longitudinal Study. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(2), 319-337. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.2.7
Tennant, R. (2002). Interdisciplinary Teaching Strategies in the World of Humanistic Mathematics. Visual Mathematics: Art and Science Electronic Journal, 4(4).
Torres-Rincón, J.C., & Cuesta-Medina, L. M. (2019). Situated Practice in CLIL: Voices from Colombian Teachers. GIST Education and Learning Research Journal, 18, 109-141. https://doi.org/10.26817/16925777.456
Villabona, N., & Cenoz, J. (2021). The integration of content and language in CLIL: a challenge for content-driven and language-driven teachers. Language, Culture and Curriculum. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2021.1910703
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
This journal and its papers are published with the Creative Commons License Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). You are free to share copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format if you: give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; don’t use our material for commercial purposes; don’t remix, transform, or build upon the material.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).