An Exploration of EFL Teachers’ Experience with Learning Disability Training
Keywords:EFL teachers, teacher, learning disabilities, learning disability training, learning disability identification, learning disability accommodation.
Exploración de la experiencia de los profesores de inglés como lengua extranjera con formación en dificultades de aprendizaje
Exploração da experiência dos professores de inglês como língua estrangeira com treinamento em dificuldades de aprendizagem
Approximately ten percent of learners have some sort of learning disability. This means that all English language instructors will encounter students with learning disabilities and could encounter students with learning disabilities in each class. Research has shown that different countries have varying degrees of infrastructure for identifying and accommodating learning disabilities. However, little research on the degree to which English language teachers in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) contexts have received training for learning disabilities has been carried out. This study had three goals: first, to identify whether the participants in the study, all of whom were EFL instructors, had received training for identifying and accommodating students with learning disabilities; second, among the teachers who had received training, to find out specifically the types of training they had received; and finally, to find out whether training had helped these teachers develop competence in assisting students with learning disabilities. The data were collected through a survey of past and current EFL teachers. Overall, the findings revealed that the majority of English language teachers surveyed had little to no training for accommodating learning disabilities, and the majority indicated that they did not feel confident assisting students with learning disabilities. Recommendations from this study include creating greater awareness for identifying and accommodating learning disabilities in EFL contexts among administrators and teachers as well as suggestions for EFL teachers to improve their knowledge of learning disabilities independently.
To reference this article (APA) / Para citar este artículo (APA) / Para citar este artigo (APA)
Sowell, J. & Sugisaki, L. (2020). An exploration of EFL teachers’ experience with learning disability training. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 13(1), 114-134. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2020.13.1.7
Abedi, J. (2006). Psychometric issues in the ELL assessment and special education eligibility. Teachers College Record, 108(11), 2282–2303. https://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentId=12805
Artiles, A. J., & Ortiz, A. A. (2002). English language learners with special education needs. Center for Applied Linguistics.
Artiles, A. J. Rueda, R., Salazar J., & Higereda, I. (2005). Within group diversity and minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283–300. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440290507100305
Basu, S. C., Poonam, D., & Beniwal, A. (2014). A study to find the challenges faced by teachers in the class of child with dyslexia. Educationia Confab, 3(5), 1–8. https://www.academia.edu/34868113/A_Study_to_Find_the_Challenges_Faced_By_Teachers_in_the_Class_of_Child_with_Dyslexia
Berry, B., Daughtrey, A., & Wieder, A. (2010). Preparing to lead an effective classroom: The role of teacher training and professional development programs. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED509718.pdf
Bulat, J., Hayes, A. M., Macon, W., Ticha, R., & Abery, B. H. (2017). School and classroom disabilities inclusion guide for low-and middle-income countries. RTI Press. http://doi.org/10.3768/rtipress.2017.op.0031.1701
Burr, E., Hass, E., & Ferriere, K. (2015). Identifying and supporting English learners with learning disabilities: Key issues in the literature and state practice. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED558163.pdf
Butterworth, B., & Kovas, Y. (2013). Understanding neurocognitive developmental disorders can improve education for all. Science, 340(6130), 300–305. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1231022
Case, R. E., & Taylor, S. S. (2005). Language difference or learning disability? Answers from a linguistic perspective. The Clearing House: A Journal of Strategies, Issues, and Ideas, 78(3), 127–131. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ710918
Chu, S. Y., & Flores, S. (2011). Assessment of English language learners with learning disabilities. The Clearing House, 84(6), 42–48. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ950410
Cohan, A., & Honigsfeld, A. (2012). Differentiating between learning disabilities and typical second language acquisition: A case study. Insights on Learning Disabilities 9(2), 13–20. https://works.bepress.com/audrey-cohan/5/
Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L.S., & Barnes, M. A. (2007). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention. Guildford Press.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (1994). Inclusive school movement and radicalization of special education reform. Exceptional Children, 60(4), 294–309. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440299406000402
Huang, Y. (2011). Developing English as a foreign language pedagogy for students with learning disabilities in Taiwan: Insights from individual cases (Publication No. 3488948) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
Joffe, H., & Yardley, L. (2003). Content and thematic analysis. In D. F. Marks & L. Yardley (Eds.), Research methods for clinical and health psychology (pp. 56–68). Sage Publications Ltd.
Kirk, S. A. (1962). Educating exceptional children. Houghton Mifflin.
Klingner, J. K., Artiles, A. J., & Mendez-Barletta, L. (2006). English language learners who struggle with reading: Language acquisition or LD? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 108–128. https://doi.org/10.1177/00222194060390020101
Klingner, J. (2009). Learning disability versus learning English as a second language. Reading Today, 27(3), 15.
Klingner, J., & Eppollito, A. (2014). English language learners: Differentiating between language acquisition and learning disabilities. Council for Exceptional Children.
Learning Disabilities Association of America. (2018). Types of learning disabilities. https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/
Lemperou, L., Chostelidou, D., & Griva, E. (2011). Identifying the training needs of EFL teachers in teaching children with dyslexia. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15(1), 410–416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.113
McCardle, P., Mele-McCarthy, J., Cutting, L., Leos, K., & D’Emilio, T. (2005). Learning disabilities in English language learners: Identifying the issues. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 20(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2005.00114.x
Moore, C., Gilbreath, D., & Maiuri, F. (1998). Educating students with disabilities in general education classrooms: A summary of the research. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED419329.pdf
National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2014). The state of learning disabilities (3rd Ed.). National Center for Learning Disabilities. https://www.ncld.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/2014-State-of-LD.pdf
Saldaña, J. (2016). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. SAGE.
Smith, A. M. (2006). Inclusion in English language teacher training and education (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Lancaster University.
Shaywitz, S. (1998). Current concepts: Dyslexia. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(5), 307 – 312. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199801293380507
Shore, J. R., & Sabatini, J. (2009). English learners with reading disabilities: A review of the literature and the foundation for a research agenda. ETS Research Report Series, 2009(1), i–48. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2333-8504.2009.tb02177.x
Sowell, J. (2016). How to conduct an ELT workshop. English Teaching Forum, 54(3), 2–9. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1114171.pdf
Stainback, W., & Stainback, S. (1996). Inclusion: A guide for educators. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.
Wight, M. C. S. (2015). Students with learning disabilities in the foreign language learning environment and the practice of exemption. Foreign Language Annals, 48(1), 39–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12122
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
This journal and its papers are published with the Creative Commons License Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). You are free to share copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format if you: give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; don’t use our material for commercial purposes; don’t remix, transform, or build upon the material.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).