Feasibility of Introducing English as a Partial Medium of Instruction in Iranian Senior High Schools
Keywords:English as a partial medium of instruction, EMI, English as a foreign language context, content and language integrated learning, CLIL, secondary education, internationalization, globalization
Viabilidad de introducir el inglés como medio parcial de instrucción en las escuelas secundarias iraníes
Viabilidade de introduzir o inglês como meio parcial de ensino nas escolas secundárias iranianas
The use of Content and Language Integrated Learning has been increasing in many European countries simultaneous to the use of English as a medium of instruction in the non-Anglophone countries due to globalization and internationalization. Since the 1979 revolution, discussion on English as a medium of instruction in the Iranian formal education has been a taboo. This study aims to figure out the possibilities of introducing English as a partial medium of instruction (EPMI) for mathematics and science at senior high schools. The convergent mixed methods design was used to collect perspectives of students, content area teachers, parents, and administrative staff in Bojnord through e-mail interviews and survey questionnaires. The majority of the interviewees in the qualitative phase as well as most of the students, parents, teachers, and administrative staff in the quantitative phase have supported the possible use of EPMI. The findings of this study suggest future considerations to assist language education authorities in taking decisions to overcome students’ language proficiency constraints while developing efficient and effective programs for CLIL.
To reference this article (APA) / Para citar este artículo (APA) / Para citar este artigo (APA)
Ghorbani, M. R. (2019). Feasibility of adopting English as a partial medium of instruction for mathematics and science subjects in Iranian senior high school. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 12(2), 292-320. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2019.12.2.5
Ahmadi, Q. S. (2017). Unwelcome? English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in the Arabian Gulf. English Language Teaching, 10(8), 11–17. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n8p11
Airey, J. (2009). Estimating undergraduate bilingual scientific literacy in Sweden. International CLIL Research Journal, 1, 26–35. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260311133_Estimating_bilingual_scientific_literacy_in_Sweden
Alrabah, S., Wu, S., Alotaibi, A. M., & Aldaihani, H. A. (2016). English teachers’ use of learners’ L1 (Arabic) in college classrooms in Kuwait. English Language Teaching, 9(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v9n1p1
Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Razavieh, A., & Sorensen, C. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Ashcraft, N. (2006). The human impact of the conversion to English-medium instruction. Proceedings from College of Humanities & Social Sciences: The Seventh Annual U.A.E University Research Conference. UAEU Funded Research Publications, 22, 11–16.
Benson, C., & Kosonen, K. (Eds.). (2013). Language issues in comparative education: Inclusive teaching and learning in non-dominant languages and cultures. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Berger, M. (2011). English-only policy for all? Case of a university English class in Japan. Polyglossia, 3, 27–43. https://www.apu.ac.jp/rcaps/uploads/fckeditor/publications/polyglossia/Polyglossia_V20_Berger.pdf
Borjian, M. (2013). English in post-revolutionary Iran: From indigenization to internationalization. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.
Brumfit, C. J. (2004). Language and higher education: Two current challenges. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 3(2), 163–173. https://doi.org/10.1177/1474022204042685
Chang, Y. (2010). English-medium instruction for subject courses in tertiary education: Reactions from Taiwanese undergraduate students. Taiwan International ESP Journal, 2(1), 55–84. https://nurulfarhani7971.weebly.com/uploads/2/7/5/4/27546657/emi_3.pdf
Chiti-Batelli, A. (2003). Can anything be done about the ‘glottophagy’ of English? A bibliographical survey with a political conclusion. Language Problems and Language Planning, 27(2), 137–153. https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.27.2.03chi
Coetzee, W. (2004). Design principles for English medium course material for speakers of other languages (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Open University, UK.
Cohen, J. W. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd Ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Coleman, J. A. (2006). English-medium teaching in European higher education. Language Teaching, 39(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480600320X
Costa, F., & Coleman, J. A. (2013). A survey of English-medium instruction in Italian higher education. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16(1), 3–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2012.676621
Coyle D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL: Content and language integrated learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Crawford-Camiciottoli, B. (2004). Interactive discourse structuring in L2 guest lectures: Some insights from a comparative corpus-based study. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 3(1), 39–54. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1475-1585(03)00044-4
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th Ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.
Crystal, D. (2004). The past, present, and future of World English. In A. Gardt & B. R. Hüppauf (Eds.), Globalization and the future of German (pp. 27–45). Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter.
Dafouz, E., & Guerrini, M. C. (Eds.). (2009). CLIL across Educational Levels: Experiences from primary, secondary and tertiary contexts. Madrid, Spain: Santillana Educación/Richmond Publishing.
Dearden, J. (2015). English as a medium of instruction: A growing global phenomenon. Oxford, UK: British Council.
Dearden, J. & Macaro, E. (2016). Higher education teachers’ attitudes towards English medium instruction: A three-country comparison. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(3), 455–486. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1134377.pdf
Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D., & Sierra, J. (2013). Globalisation, internationalisation, multilingualism and linguistic strains in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 38(9), 1407–1421. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.642349
Ellili-Cherif, M. (2014). Integrated language and content instruction in Qatar independent schools: Teachers’ perspectives. Teacher Development, 18(2), 211–228. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2014.900819
Evans, S., & Green, C. (2007). Why EAP is necessary: A survey of Hong Kong tertiary students. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6(1), 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2006.11.005
Foroozandeh, E., & Forouzani, M. (2015). Developing school English materials for the new Iranian educational system. In C. Kennedy (Ed.), English Language Teaching in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Innovations, Trends and Challenges, (pp. 59–72). London, UK: British Council.
Fortanet, I., & Bellés, B. F. (2005). Spoken academic discourse: An approach to research on lectures. Volumen Monográfico, 25, 161–178. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/28128935_Spoken_academic_discourse_An_approach_to_research_on_lectures
Gardt, A., & Hüppauf, B-R. (Eds.) (2004). Globalization and the future of German. Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter.
Ghorbani, M. R. (2009). ELT in Iranian high schools in Iran, Malaysia and Japan: Reflections on how tests influence use of prescribed textbooks. The Journal of Reflections on English Language Teaching, 8,(2), 131–139. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313073927_ELT_in_Iranian_high_schools_in_Iran_Malaysia_and_Japan_Reflections_on_how_tests_influence_use_of_prescribed_textbooks
Ghorbani, M. R. & Neissari, M. (2015). Washback effect of the Iranian concours on senior high school students’ EFL learning activities. Iranian Journal of Language Testing, 5(1), 1–28. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318339723_Washback_effect_of_the_Iranian_concours_on_senior_high_school_students’_EFL_learning_activities
Ghorbani, M. R., & Alavi, S. Z. (2014). Feasibility of adopting English-medium instruction at Iranian universities. Current Issues in Education, 17(1), 1–18. https://cie.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/cieatasu/article/view/1277
Graddol, D. (1997). The future of English? A guide to forecasting the popularity of the English language in the 21st century. London, UK: The British Council.
Graddol, D. (2006). English next. British Council. Retrieved from https://englishagenda.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/attachments/books-english-next.pdf
Hellekjaer, G. O., & Westergaard, M. R. (2003). An exploratory survey of content learning through English at Nordic universities. In C. Van Leeuwen & R. Wilkinson (Eds.). Multilingual approaches in university education: Challenges and practices (pp. 65–80). Nijmegen, The Netherlands: ValkhofPers.
Heugh, K. (2002). The case against bilingual and multilingual education in South Africa: Laying bare the myths. Perspectives in Education, 20, 171–198. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC87116
Jenkins, J. (2013). English as a lingua franca in the international university: The politics of academic English language policy. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Khan, I. A. (2011). The teacher of English: Pedagogic relevance in Saudi Arabia. English Language Teaching, 4(2), 112–120. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v4n2p112
Kirkgöz, Y. (2005). Motivation and student perception of studying in an English-medium university. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 1(1), 101–122. https://www.jlls.org/index.php/jlls/article/view/10
Kurtán, Z. (2004). Foreign-language-medium instruction in Hungarian higher education. In R. Wilkinson (Ed.), Integrating content and language: Meeting the challenge of a multilingual higher education (pp. 126–136). Masstricht, the Netherlands: Universitaire Pers Maastricht.
Kym, I., & Kym, M. H. (2014). Students’ perceptions of EMI in higher education in Korea. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 11(2), 35–61. http://www.asiatefl.org/main/download_pdf.php?i=49&c=1404136303&fn=11_2_02.pdf
Manakul, W. (2007). Role of English in internationalization of higher education: The case of the graduate school of engineering. Higher Education and Lifelong Learning, 15, 155–162. https://high.high.hokudai.ac.jp/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/No1513.pdf
Mauranen, A., Hynninen, N., & Ranta, E. (2010). English as an academic lingua franca: The ELFA project. English for Specific Purposes, 29(3), 183–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2009.10.001
Mede, E. & Cinar, S. (2018). Implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning and its effects on student motivation. LACLIL, 11(2), 215–235. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2018.11.2.3
Met, M., & Lorenz, E. B. (1997). Lessons from U.S. immersion programs: Two decades of experience. In R. K. Johnson & M. Swain (Eds.), Immersion education: International perspectives (pp. 243–264). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Murphy, V. (2014). Second language learning in the early school years: Trends and contexts. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Otto, A. (2018). Assessing language in CLIL: A review of the literature towards a functional model. LACLIL, 11(2), 308–325. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2018.11.2.6
Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Ratna, A. S. (April, 2017). Controversy behind applying EMI (English as the Medium of Instruction) among EFL students. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Applied Linguistics (CONAPLIN 9): Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), 82, 58–63. https://doi.org/10.2991/conaplin-16.2017.12
Rose, H., & McKinley, J. (2017). Japan’s English medium instruction initiatives and the globalization of higher education. https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:8fefd80a-5afe-45f0-adb7-2344ea988dd3
Sadeghi, K., & Richards, J. C. (2016). The idea of English in Iran: An example from Urmia. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(4), 419–434. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1080714
Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a lingua franca. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Soruç, A., & Griffiths, C. (2017). English as a medium of instruction: Students’ strategies. ELT Journal, ccx017, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccx017
Stavans, A. & Hoffmann, C. (2015). Multilingualism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Tekin A. (2015). Early EFL education is on the rise in Oman: A qualitative inquiry of parental beliefs about early EFL learning. English Language Teaching, 8(2), 35–43. http://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v8n2p35
UNESCO. (2008a). Mother tongue matters: Local language as a key to effective learning. Paris, France: UNESCO.
UNESCO. (2008b). Mother tongue instruction in early childhood education: A selected bibliography. Paris, France: UNESCO.
Van Der Worp, K. (2017). English medium instruction: A way towards linguistically better prepared professionals in the Basque Autonomous Community? International Journal of Multilingualism, 14(1), 53–68. http://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2017.1258994
Vinke, A. A., Snippe, J., & Jochems, W. (1998). English-medium content courses in non-English higher education: a study of lecturer experiences and teaching behaviors. Teaching in Higher Education, 3, 383–394. https://doi.org/10.1080/1356215980030307
Vu, N. T. T., & Burns, A. (2014). English as a medium of instruction: Challenges for Vietnamese tertiary lecturers. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 11(3), 1–31. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283083963_English_as_a_medium_of_instruction_Challenges_for_Vietnamese_tertiary_lecturers
Wong, R. M. H. (2010). The effectiveness of using English as the sole medium of instruction in English classes: Student responses and improved English proficiency. Porta Linguarium 13, 119–130. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/46014984_The_Effectiveness_of_Using_English_as_the_Sole_Medium_of_Instruction_in_English_Classes_Student_Responses_and_Improved_English_Proficiency
Wu, W. S. (2006). Students’ attitudes toward EMI: Using Chung Hua University as an example. Journal of Education and Foreign Language and Literature, 4, 67–84.
Yang, W. (2015). Content and language integrated learning next in Asia: Evidence of learners’ achievement in CLIL education from a Taiwan tertiary degree programme. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 18(4), 361–382. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2014.904840
Zare-ee, A., & Hejazi, S. Y. (2017). University teachers’ views on English as the medium of instruction in an Iranian higher education institution. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 8(4), 467–485. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol8no4.32
Zhang, H. (2017). What makes an effective English-medium course in China? Experiences and perspectives of international undergraduates. RELC Journal, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688217691815
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
This journal and its papers are published with the Creative Commons License Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). You are free to share copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format if you: give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; don’t use our material for commercial purposes; don’t remix, transform, or build upon the material.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).