Contention Between English as a Second Language and Special Education Services for Emergent Bilinguals with Disabilities
Keywords:Emergent bilinguals with disabilities, special education services, special needs education, English as a Second Language services, priority, new language development, language instruction
Tensión entre el inglés como segunda lengua y los servicios de educación especial para bilingües emergentes con discapacidades
Tensão entre o inglês como segunda língua e os serviços de educação especial para bilíngues emergentes com deficiências
The debate surrounding the prioritization of services for emergent bilinguals with disabilities is an area in need of attention. The generalized belief that disability-related services must take priority over English as a Second Language services suggests that there is a critical need to develop school professionals’ understanding that these learners, in addition to receiving special education services, need substantial support in developing their second language abilities. The steady growth of emergent bilinguals and multilinguals in public schools, that is, students acquiring English as a new language, calls for well-trained practitioners able to meet these students’ diverse linguistic, academic, cultural, emotional, and intellectual needs. The typical challenges this population faces acquiring a new language have, well too often, been misrepresented, neglected, or led them to programs for students with true disabilities. However, when emergent bilinguals are legitimately referred to special education, it is not uncommon for their disability-related needs to be prioritized over their English as a Second Language-related needs, and they end up not receiving the support they need to develop social and academic skills in the new language. This review article is intended to stimulate reflection on the types of services being delivered to emergent bilinguals and multilinguals with disabilities in U.S. public school settings.
To reference this article (APA) / Para citar este artículo (APA) / Para citar este artigo (APA)
Lopes-Murphy, S. A. (2020). Contention between English as a second language and special education services for emergent bilinguals with disabilities. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 13(1), 43-56. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2020.13.1.3
Artiles, A. J., Kozleski, E. B., Trent, S. C., Oscher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968–2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76(3), 279–299. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440291007600303
Artiles, A. J., & Ortiz, A. A. (2002). English language learners with special education needs: Identification, assessment, and instruction. Delta Systems.
Artiles, A. A., Rueda, R., Salazar, J. J., & Higareda, I. (2005). Within-group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283–300. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.524.3956&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Barrio, B. L. (2017). Special education policy change: Addressing the disproportionality of English language learners in special education programs in rural communities. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 36(2), 64–72. https://doi.org/10.1177/8756870517707217
Bassegio, K. (2018). A silent crisis: The misidentification of English language learners as students with learning disabilities. All Regis University Theses, 865. https://epublications.regis.edu/theses/865/
Ferguson, D., Hanreddy, A. N., & Ferguson, P. M. (2013). Finding a voice: Families’ roles in schools. In L. Florian (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of special education (pp. 763–783). Sage.
Gargiulo, R. M. (2012). Special education in contemporary society: An introduction to exceptionality. Sage.
Gaviria-Soto, J. L., & Castro-Morera, M. (2005). Beyond over-representation: The problem of bias in the inclusion of minority group students in special education programs. Quality and Quantity, 39, 537–558. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-005-1606-3
Gay, G. (2002). Culturally responsive teaching in special education for ethnically diverse students: Setting the stage. Qualitative Studies in Education, 15, 613–629. https://doi.org/10.1080/0951839022000014349
Goulah, J., & Soltero, S. (2015). Reshaping the mainstream education climate through bilingual-bicultural education. In Research on Preparing Inservice Teachers to Work Effectively with Emergent Bilinguals (Advances in Research on Teaching, Vol 24) (pp. 177–203). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-368720150000024009
Hamayan, E., Marler, B., Sánchez-López, C., & Damico, J. (2013). Special education considerations for English language learners: Delivering a continuum of services (2nd Ed.). Caslon Publishing.
Jezewski, M. A., & Sotnik, P. (2001). Culture brokering: Providing culturally competent rehabilitation services to foreign-born persons. Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information and Exchange. http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/culture/ monographs/cb.php
Kangas, S. E. N. (2014). When special education trumps ESL: An investigation of service delivery for ELLs with disabilities. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 11(4), 273–306.
Kena, G., Aud, S., & Johnson, F. (2014). The condition of education 2014. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014083.pdf
Klingner, J. K., Artiles, A. J., Kozleski, E., Harry, B., Zion, S., Tate, W., Durán, G. Z., & Riley, D. (2005). Addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education through culturally responsive educational systems. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13(38), 1–40. https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v13n38.2005
Klingner, J., & Eppolito, A. M. (2014). English language learners: Differentiating between language acquisition and learning disabilities. Council for Exceptional Children.
Klingner, J. K., & Harry, B. (2006). The special education referral and decision-making process for English language learners: Child study team meetings and placement conferences. Teachers College Record, 108(11), 2247–2281. https://nepc.colorado.edu/sites/default/files/publications/10.1.1.548.1121.pdf
Linn, D., & Hemmer, L. (2011). English language learner disproportionality in special education: implications for the scholar-practitioner. Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 1(1), 70–80. http://doi.org/10.5590/Jerap.2011.01.1.06
National Center for Education Statistics. (2017). The condition of education 2017. https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2017144
National Center for Education Statistics. (2020). Students with disabilities. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgg.asp
Okhremtchouk, I. S., & Sellu, G. S. (2019). Teacher readiness to work with English language learners: Arizona context. Teacher Educator (2), 125–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/08878730.2018.1533058
Ortiz, S. O. (2014). Disproportionality and English language learners in special education: Why it happens and what to do about it [PowerPoint slides]. http://esc9.courseinsite.com/file_attachments/3111.pdf
Rueda, R., & Windmueller, M. P. (2006). English language learners, LD, and overrepresentation: A multiple-level analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 99–107. https://doi.org/10.1177/00222194060390020801
Samson, J. F., & Lesaux, N. K. (2009). Language-minority learners in special education: Rates and predictors of identification for services. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 148–162. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219408326221
Short, D. J., Becker, H., Cloud, N., Hellman, A. B., & Levine, L. N. (2018). The 6 principles for exemplary teaching of English learners. TESOL Press.
Sullivan, A. L. (2011). Disproportionality in special education identification and placement of English language learners. Council for Exceptional Children, 77(3), 317–334. http://debdavis.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/81120626/journal%202.pdf
Thurlow, M. L., Christensen, L. L., and Shyyan, V. V. (2016). White paper on English language learners with significant cognitive disabilities. University of Minnesota, National Center and Educational Outcomes, English Language Proficiency Assessment for the 21st Century.
Virginia Department of Education. (2017, January). Supporting world language learning for students with disabilities. Office of Special Education Instructional Services, Office of Humanities and Early Childhood. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/foreign_language/resources/world-language-swd.pdf
WIDA. (2017, May). Identifying ELLs with specific learning disabilities: Facts, advice, and resources for school teams. https://wida.wisc.edu/sites/default/files/resource/FocusOn-Identifying-ELLs-with-Specific-Learning-Disabilities.pdf
Zehler, A. M., Fleischman, H. L., Hopstock, P. J., Stephenson, T. G., Pendzick, M. L., & Sapru, S. (2003). Descriptive study of services to LEP students and LEP students. https://www.ncela.ed.gov/files/rcd/BE021199/special_ed4.pdf
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
This journal and its papers are published with the Creative Commons License Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). You are free to share copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format if you: give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; don’t use our material for commercial purposes; don’t remix, transform, or build upon the material.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).