Teacher Identity in CLIL: A Case Study of Two In-service Teachers





Integrated curriculum, identity, teaching profession, language of instruction, teacher attitudes


The provision of CLIL teachers in Spain has outpaced the growth of the so-called bilingual programs, as there are no specific training requirements for CLIL teachers who are either ­content or language specialists. So, CLIL teachers have a preexistent teacher identity that could influence their pedagogical choices. This study examines how teachers negotiate their existing ­teacher identities in a CLIL environment and how they exercise those identities in the classroom. The study adopts a qualitative case study methodology using interviews and questionnaires. Findings show that the way teachers negotiated their identities was affected by their former personal and professional experiences, their conceptualization of the imagined community, and their investment in that community. The findings have implications for creating in-service training programs that enhance teachers’ language awareness in CLIL and their association with the community.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Patricia Bárcena Toyos, Universidad Internacional de La Rioja

Patricia Bárcena-Toyos is an Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Education at Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR). Her research and pedagogical interests include CLIL and EFL teacher education, and gamification in online education. 


Bárcena-Toyos, P. (2020). Teachers’ classroom practices to achieve inte­gration of content and language in CLIL. NABE Journal of Research

and Practice, 10(3-4), 94-106. https://doi.org/10.1080/26390043.2021.1890989

Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. Continuum.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in ­psychology.

Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Cenoz, J., Genesee, F., & Gorter, D. (2014). Critical analysis of CLIL: Taking stock and looking forward. Applied Linguistics, 35(3), 243-262. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt011

Curdt-Christiansen, X. L. (2020). Educating migrant children in England: language and educational practices in home and school environments. International Multilingual Research Journal, 14(2), 163-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2020.1732524

Custodio-Espinar, M., & García-Ramos, J. M. (2020). Are accredited teachers equally trained for CLIL? The CLIL Teacher Paradox. Porta Linguarum, 33, 9-25.

Dafouz, E. (2018) English-medium instruction and teacher education programmes in higher education: ideological forces and imagined identities at work. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(5), 540-552. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1487926

Darvin, R., & Norton, B. (2015). Identity and a model of investment in applied linguistics. Annual review of applied linguistics, 35, 36-56. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190514000191

Duff, P. A. (2012). Identity, agency, and second language acquisition. In S. M Gass, & A. Mackey (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 428-444). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203808184-36

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2013). Making content comprehensible for English learners. The SIOP model. Pearson Ed.

Kanno, Y., & Norton, B. (2003). Imagined communities and educational possibilities: Introduction. Journal of language, identity, and education, 2(4), 241-249. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327701JLIE0204_1

Kanno, Y., & Stuart, C. (2011). Learning to become a second language teacher: Identities‐in‐practice. The Modern Language Journal, 95(2), 236-252. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01178.x

Karabassova, L. (2018). Teachers’ conceptualization of content and language integrated learning (CLIL): evidence from a trilingual ­context. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1550048

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355

Lo, Y. Y. (2019). Development of the beliefs and language awareness of content subject teachers in CLIL: does professional development help? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(7), 818-832. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1318821

Lucas, T., & Villegas, A. M. (2013). Preparing linguistically ­responsive ­teachers: Laying the foundation in preservice teacher ­education.

­Theory into Practice, 52(2), 98-109. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2013.770327

Martin, A. D. (2019) Teacher identities and English learners in mainstream classrooms: A discourse analysis. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 16(2), 130-151. https://doi.org/10.1080/15427587.2018.1471693

Martin, A. D., & Strom, K. J. (2016). Toward a linguistically responsive teacher identity: An empirical review of the literature. International Multilingual Research Journal, 10(4), 239-253. https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2016.1189799

Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. John Wiley & Sons.

Moate, J. (2013). Reconceptualising teacherhood through the lens of ­foreign-language mediation. Jyväskylä studies in education, psychology and social research, (459).

Moate, J., & Ruohotie-Lyhty, M. (2020). Identity and Agency Development in a CLIL-based Teacher Education Program. Journal for the Psychology of Language Learning, 2(2), 92-106. https://doi.org/10.52598/jpll/2/2/7

Morton, T. (2012). Classroom talk, conceptual change and teacher reflection in bilingual science teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(1), 101-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2011.07.006

Nikula, T., Dafouz, E., Moore, P., & Smit, U. (Eds.). (2016). Conceptualising integration in CLIL and multilingual education. Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783096145

Norton, B. (2001). Non-participation, imagined communities and the language classroom. Learner contributions to language learning: New directions in research, 6(2), 159-171.

Norton, B. (2013). Identity and language learning. Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783090563

Otto, A., & San Isidro, X. (2019). Language as the articulator of a CLIL ecosystem: the Spanish case. Revista Nebrija de Lingüística Aplicada a la Enseñanza de Lenguas, 13(27), 14-31.

Pappa, S., & Moate, J. (2021). Teacher Educators’ Professional Identity in English-Medium Instruction at a Finnish University. CEPS Journal, 11(3). https://doi.org/10.26529/cepsj.1053

Pappa, S., Moate, J., Ruohotie-Lyhty, M., & Eteläpelto, A. (2017). Teachers’ pedagogical and relational identity negotiation in the Finnish CLIL context. Teaching and Teacher Education, 65, 61-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.03.008

Pérez Cañado, M. L. (2018). Innovations and challenges in CLIL teacher training. Theory Into Practice, 57(3), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2018.1492238

Ruohotie-Lyhty, M. (2016). Dependent or independent: The construction of the beliefs of newly qualified foreign language teachers. In P. Kalaja, A. M. F. Barcelos, M. Aro, & M. Ruohotie-Lyhty (Eds.), Beliefs, ­agency and identity in foreign language learning and teaching (pp. 149–171). ­Palgrave. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137425959_8

Ruohotie-Lyhty, M. (2018). Identity-agency in progress: Teachers authoring their identities. In P. A. Schutz, J. Hong, & D. C. Francis (Eds.), Research on Teacher Identity (pp. 25-36). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93836-3_3

Saldana, J. (2013). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage.

Villabona, N., & Cenoz, J. (2021). The integration of content and language in CLIL: a challenge for content-driven and language-driven teachers. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2021.1910703




How to Cite

Bárcena Toyos, P. (2022). Teacher Identity in CLIL: A Case Study of Two In-service Teachers. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 15(1), e1516. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2022.15.1.6




Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.