From theory to textbook: Constructing language materials for young learners
Keywords:enseñanza de segundas lenguas, Inglés, libros de texto, enfoque comunicativo .
Second language materials for young learners are often deceptive in their simplicity. They appear to be easy to create because their content spans a limited range of grammatical forms and vocabulary. However, beyond the challenging process of selecting such content are the underlying theoretical concepts, methodologies and approaches that inform well-constructed learning materials. This paper outlines considerations that go into creating a textbook series for young learners in terms of views of language learning, the communicative approach, a notional-functional syllabus, comprehensible input and output, task chains, learner-centeredness, the negotiated curriculum, and autonomy.
Akbari, R. (2008). Postmethod discourse and practice. TESOL Quarterly, 42/4
Bardeen, C.W. (ed.) (1887) The Orbis Pictus of John Amos Comenius (C. Hoole trans.). Syracuse, NY: C. W. Bardeen.
Beatty, K. (2012a) Starship English Student Book 1. Orlando, FL: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing
Beatty, K. (2012b) Starship English Student Book 6. Orlando, FL: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing
Beatty, K. (2012c) Starship English Starter. Orlando, FL: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing
Boomer, G., Lester, N., Onore, C. & Cook, J. (1992). Negotiating the curriculum: Educating for the twenty-first century. London: Falmer Press.
Brown, C. & Yule, C. (1983). Teaching the spoken language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Council of Europe. (2011). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cullen, R., Harris, M. & Hill, R.R. (2012) The Learner-Centered Curriculum: Design and Implementation. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.
Ebanks, R.A. (2010) The influence of learner-centered pedagogy on the achievement of students in Title I elementary schools. (Doctoral dissertation) Northcentral University, Chicago, IL.
European Commission. (2012, June 27) Content and Language Integrated Learning. Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/languages/language-teaching/content-and-language-integrated-learning_en.htm
Fuller, R. B. (1969). Operating manual for spaceship earth. New York: Simon & Schuster
Gairns R. & Redman S. (2002). Working with words: A guide to teaching and learning vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grenfell, M, & Vee H. (1999) Modern Languages and Learning Strategies: In Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.
Harmer, J. (2007). How To Teach English. London: Pearson Longman.
Kordalewski, J. (1999). Incorporating Student Voice into Teaching Practice. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED440049).
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Krashen, S. (1994) The input hypothesis and its rivals. In N. Ellis (ed.) Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages, (pp. 45-77). London: Academic Press.
Krashen, S. (2003). Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use. Portsmouth: Heinemann.
Krashen, S.D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications, New York, NY: Longman.
Krashen, S.D. (1989), We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: additional evidence for the input hypothesis. Modern Language Journal, 73, no. 4, pp. 440–464.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986). Techniques and principles in language teaching. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Luftenegger, M., Schover, B., van de Schoot, R., Wagner, P., Finsterwald & M., Spiel, C. (2012). Lifelong Learning as a Goal–Do Autonomy and Self-Regulation in School Result in Well Prepared Pupils? Learning and Instruction, v22 n1 pp. 27-36.
Nobuyoshi, J. & Ellis, R. (1993) Focused communication tasks and second language acquisition. ELT Journal 47, pp. 203-210.
Nunan, D. (1988) The learner-centred curriculum: A study in second language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, D. (1991) Communicative Tasks and the Language Curriculum. TESOL Quarterly Vol. 25, No. 2, Summer pp. 279-295.
Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Polly, D. & Hannafin, M.J. (2011) Examining how learner-centered professional development influences teachers’ espoused and enacted practices. Journal of Education Research v104 n2, 120-130.
Richards, J.C. (2001) Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T.S. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. New York, NY: Appleton-Century.
Swain, M. (1985) Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In Gass, S. & Madden, C. (Eds.), Input in Second Language Acquisition, pp. 235-256. New York, NY: Newbury House.
Swain, M. & Lapkin, S. (1995). Problems in output and the cognitive processes they generate. Applied Linguistics 16, 371-391.
Swarbrick, A., (ed.) Teaching Modern Languages. New York, NY: Routledge, 1994.
Thornbury, S. (2010, 15 August). C is for Commuicative. Retrieved from http://scottthornbury.wordpress.com/2010/08/15/c-is-for-communicative/
Wilbur, M.L. (2007) How Foreign Language Teachers Get Taught: Methods of Teaching the Methods Course. Foreign Language Annals 40.1, 79.
Wilkins, D.A. (1976) Notional Syllabuses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Willis, D. & Willis, J. (2001). Task-based language learning. In R. Carter, D. Nunan (eds.) The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
This journal and its papers are published with the Creative Commons License Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). You are free to share copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format if you: give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; don’t use our material for commercial purposes; don’t remix, transform, or build upon the material.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).