EFL Teachers’ Challenges to Write Content and Language Objectives for CBI Lesson Plans at a Mexican University

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2020.13.2.4

Keywords:

CBI, lesson planning, objectives, language features, cognitive categories, Instruction, teaching guides

Abstract

This study aims at documenting the challenges that three Mexican students participating in a Content-Based Instruction (CBI) module from a Master’s (MA) program in English Language Teaching (ELT) face when writing content and language objectives for CBI lessons. Through qualitative research based on a content analysis design, one lesson plan of each MA student (n=3) was analyzed using criteria proposed by well-known researchers. Results revealed that MA students wrote clear content objectives. The major challenge of content objectives was found in the observability of these objectives. Language objectives were less successful, as most of them were rated as not clear. Moreover, language objectives focused almost exclusively on language skills and grammar and language structures. Finally, the verbs used in the language objectives demanded a low-order cognitive category from students. Despite being EFL trained teachers, these MA students had more challenges in writing language objectives than content objectives. Thus, material, examples, and directions provided to students should explicitly draw students’ attention to the most common challenges to help overcome them.

Received: 23/07/2019

Accepted: 28/02/2020

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Andres Arias de la Cruz, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco

Profesor Investigador de la Licenciatura en Iidomas de la División Académica de Educación y Artes

References

Airey, J. (2012). “I don’t teach language”: The linguistic attitudes of physics lectures in Sweden. AILA Review, 25(2012), 64–79. https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.25.05air

Anderson, L., Krathwohl, D., Airasian, P., Cruikshank, K., Mayer, R., Pintrich, P., Raths, J., & Wittrock, M. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Arias, A., & Izquierdo, J. (2015). Language attention in content-based instruction: The case of language instructors teaching content in a foreign language in Mexican higher education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 3(2), 194–217. http://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.3.2.02ari

Arias, A., Domínguez, G., & Morales, E. (2019). Form-focused instruction (FFI) and language features attended to during content-based instruction (CBI) lessons at a southeastern Mexican university. Actualidades Investigativas en Educación, 19(1),1–28. https://doi.org/10.15517/aie.v19i1.34785

Arnó-Macià, E., & Mancho-Barés, G. (2015). The role of content and language in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) at university: Challenges and implications for ESP. English for Specific Purposes, 37(2015), 63–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2014.06.007

Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior (ANUIES). (2017–2018). Catálogo de carreras de licenciatura y posgrado. https://www.anuies.mx/iinformacion-y-servicios/informacion-estadistica-de-educacion-superior/anuario-estadistico-de-educacion-superior

Baecher, L., Farnsworth, T., & Ediger, A. (2014). The challenges of planning language objectives in content-based ESL instruction. Language Teaching Research, 18(I), 118–136. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168813505381

Banegas, D. L. (2015). Sharing views of CLIL lesson planning in language teacher education. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 8(2), 104–130. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2015.8.2.3

Bigelow, M., Ranney, S., & Dahlman, A. (2006). Keeping the language focus in content-based ESL instruction through proactive curriculum ­planning. TESL Canada Journal, 24(1), 40–58. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v24i1.27

Brinton, D., Snow, M., & Wesche, M. (2003). Content-based second language instruction. The University of Michigan Press.

Burger, S., & Chrétien, M. (2001). The development of oral production in content-based second language courses at the university of Ottawa. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 58(1), 84–102. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.58.1.84

Cammarata, L., & Tedick, D. (2012). Balancing content and language in instruction: The experience of immersion teachers. Modern Language Journal, 96(ii), 251–269. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2012.01330.x

Collins, J. W., & O’Brien, N. P. (2003). The Greenwood dictionary of education. Greenwood publishing group.

Corrales, K., & Maloof, C. (2009). Evaluating the effects of CBI on an English for medical students program. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 2(1), 15–23. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2009.2.1.3

Costa, F. (2012). Focus on form in ICLHE lectures in Italy. AILA Review, 25(2012), 30–47. https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.25.03cos

Creese, A. (2010). Content focused classrooms and learning English: How teachers collaborate. Theory into practice, 49, 99–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841003626494

Dalton-Puffer, C. (2008). Outcomes and processes in content and language integrated learning (CLIL): Current research from Europe. In W. Delanoy & I. Volkmann (Eds.), Future perspectives for English language teaching. Anglistische Forschunge (Vol. 388, pp. 139–157). Winter.

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2010). Making content comprehensible for secondary English learners the SIOP model. Pearson ­Education.

Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H., & Loewen, S. (2002). Doing focus-on-form. System, 30(2002), 419–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(02)00047-7

Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Sage Publications.

Lara, R., Richter, G., Razo, L. O., & Gonzalez, L. D. (2016). Mexican teachers’ perceptions of teaching English through content-based instruction in the state of Guanajuato Mexico: A dual perspective. Entreciencias: diálogos en la sociedad del conocimiento, 4(9), 97–108. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=457645340008

Lightbown, P. M. (2007). Fair trade: Two-way bilingual education. Estudios de Lingüística Inglesa Aplicada, 7, 9–34. http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/ELIA/article/view/18087/

Lindseth, M. (2016). The effects of form-focused instruction on the acquisition of subject-verb inversion in German. Foreign Language Annals, 49(1), 10–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12174

Loewen, S. (2005). Incidental focus on form and second language learning. SSLA, 27, 361–386. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263105050163

Lyster, R., & Ballinger, S. (2011). Content-based language teaching: Convergent concerns across divergent contexts. Language Teaching Research, 15(3), 279–288. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168811401150

Lyster, R., & Mori, H. (2006). Interactional feedback and instructional counterbalance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 269–300. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106060128

Lyster, R. (2007). Learning and teaching languages through content: A counterbalanced approach. John Benjamins.

Marzban, A., & Mokhberi, M. (2012). The effect of focus on form instruction on intermediate EFL learners’ grammar learning in task-based language teaching. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46(2012), 5340–5344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.435

Nikula, T., Dalton-Puffer, C., Llinates, A., & Lorenzo, F. (2016). More than content and language: The complexity of integration in CLIL and multilingual education. In Nikula, T., Dafouz, E., Moore, P. & Smit, U. (Ed.). Conceptualising integration in CLIL and multilingual education (pp. 1–25). Multilingual matters.

Rodgers, D. (2015). Incidental language learning in foreign language content courses. The Modern Language Journal, 99(1), 113–136. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12194

Schleppegrell, M., Achugar, M., & Orteíza, T. (2004). The grammar of history: Enhancing content-based instruction through a functional focus on language. TESOL Quarterly, 38(1), 67–93. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588259

Sepešiová, M. (2015). CLIL lesson planning. In Pokrivcáková et al. (Ed.), CLIL in foreign language education: E-textbook for foreign language teachers

(pp. 131–152). https://doi.org/10.17846/CLIL.2015.131-152

Short, D. J. (2017). How to integrate content and language learning effectively for English language learning. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education, 13(7b), 4237–4260. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2017.00806a

Spada, N., Jessop, L., Tomita, Y., Suzuki, W., & Valeo, A. (2014). Isolated and integrated form-focused instruction: Effects on different types of L2 knowledge. Language Teaching Research, 18(4), 453–473. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168813519883

Swain, M. (1996). Integrating language and content in immersion classrooms: Research perspectives. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 52, 529–548. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.52.4.529

Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. (2007). Plan de estudios de la maestría en la enseñanza del idioma inglés. Villahermosa, Mexico.

Unterberger, B. (2012). English-medium programmes at Austrian business faculty. A status quo survey on national trends and a case study on programme design and delivery. AILA Review, 25(2012), 80–100. https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.25.06unt

Zyzik, E. & Polio, C. (2008). Incidental focus on form in university Spanish literature courses. The Modern Language Journal, 92(i), 53–70. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2008.00686.x

Downloads

Published

2021-01-14

How to Cite

Arias de la Cruz, A. (2021). EFL Teachers’ Challenges to Write Content and Language Objectives for CBI Lesson Plans at a Mexican University. Latin American Journal of Content &Amp; Language Integrated Learning, 13(2), 215–240. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2020.13.2.4

Issue

Section

Articles