Dyslexia in a Global Context: A Cross-Linguistic, Cross-Cultural Perspective
Keywords:Dyslexia, learning disabilities, teacher training, teacher education, inclusion, international dyslexia, multilingualism, culture
Dislexia en un contexto global: una perspectiva interlingüística e intercultural
Dislexia em um contexto global: uma perspectiva interlinguística e intercultural
Dyslexia is a global issue. It encompasses a range of language and literacy cultures with many variations regarding definitions, diagnostic measures, regulations, policies, and support procedures for dyslexic students. Considerable progress has been made in the field of monolingual dyslexia, but now there is growing interest in the multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural world of dyslexia. Provision and supports are considered broader for multilingual learners than for those who are monolingual. With cross-cultural and cross-linguistic differences among students, teachers need to implement inclusive practices to ensure successful language and content learning in the classroom. Based on an extensive search of relevant literature, the purpose of this narrative review is to explore research on dyslexia from an international, cross-cultural, and cross-language perspective. The goal is also to highlight universal or unique characteristics, to emphasize the diversity of global interest, and to discuss the training needs of educators who must support culturally and linguistically diverse students with dyslexia.
To reference this article (APA) / Para citar este artículo (APA) / Para citar este artigo (APA)
Maunsell, M. (2020). Dyslexia in a Global Context: A Cross-Linguistic, Cross-Cultural Perspective. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 13(1), 92-113. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2020.13.1.6
Agrawal, J., Barrio, B. L., Kressler, B., Hsiao, Y. J., & Shankland, R. K. (2019). International policies, identification, and services for students with learning disabilities: An exploration across 10 countries. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 17(1), 95–114. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1218057.pdf
Aladwani, A. M., & Al Shaye, S. S. (2012). Primary school teachers’ knowledge and awareness of dyslexia in Kuwaiti students. Education, 132(3), 499–516. https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-283945585/primary-school-teachers-knowledge-and-awareness-of
Anderson, P., & Meier-Hedde, R. (Eds.) (2011). International case studies of dyslexia. Routledge Research in Education, 56. http://doi.org/10.4324/9780203818404
Asbjørnsen, A. E., Obrzut, J. E., & Oyler, J. D. (2014). A cross-cultural comparison of verbal learning and memory functions in reading disabled American and Norwegian adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55(2), 115–122. http://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12108
Berlin, R. (1887). Eine besondere Art der Wortblindheit (Dyslexie). Verlag von J. F. Bergmann.
Brunswick, N. (2010). Unimpaired reading development and dyslexia across different languages. In N. Brunswick, S. McDougall, & P. de Mornay Davies (Eds.), Reading and dyslexia in different orthographies (pp. 131–154). Psychology Press.
Chakravarty, A. (2009). Artistic talent in dyslexia - A hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses, 73, 569–571. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2009.05.034
Chen, H., Xu, J., Zhou, Y., Gao, Y., Wang, G., Xia, J., & Sun, Y. (2015). Association study of stuttering candidate genes GNPTAB, GNPTG and NAGPA with dyslexia in Chinese population. BMC Genetics, 16(7), 1–7. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12863-015-0172-5
Coyne, M. D., Simmons, D. C., Hagan-Burke, S., Simmons, L. E., Kwok, O.-M., Kim, M., Rawlinson, D. A. M. (2013). Adjusting beginning reading intervention based on student performance: An experimental evaluation. Exceptional Children, 80(1), 25–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440291308000101
Duncan L. G. (2010). Phonological development from a cross-linguistic perspective. In N. Brunswick, S. McDougall, & P. de Mornay Davies (Eds.), Reading and dyslexia in different orthographies (pp. 43–68). Psychology Press.
Durgunoğlu A.Y., Nagy W.E, Hancin-Bhatt B. J. (1993). Cross-language transfer of phonological awareness. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 453–465. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1243
Dyslexia International. (2017). Better training, better teaching. https://www.dyslexia-and-literacy.international/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/DI-Duke-Report-final-4-29-14.pdf
Elliott, J. G., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2014). The dyslexia debate. Cambridge University Press.
European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. (2012). Teacher education for inclusion. Profile of inclusive teachers. European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/TE4I-Literature-Review.pdf
Mortimore, T., Hansen, L., Hutchings, M., Northcote, A., Fernando, J., Horobin, L., Saunders, K., & Everatt, J. (2012). Dyslexia and multilingualism: Identifying and supporting bilingual learners who might be at risk of developing SpLD/dyslexia. British Dyslexia Association and the Lottery Fund. Research Reports for External Bodies. The British Dyslexia Association.
Fletcher, J. M., Stuebing, K. K., Barth, A. E., Denton, C. A., Cirino, P. T., Francis, D. J., & Vaughn, S. (2011). Cognitive correlates of inadequate response to reading intervention. School Psychology Review, 40(1), 3–22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485697/
Forlin, C. (2013). Changing paradigms and future directions for implementing inclusive education in developing countries. Asian Journal of Inclusive Education, 1(2), 19–31.
Forlin, C. (2012). Future directions for inclusive teacher education: An international perspective. Routledge.
Forlin, C. (2010). Teacher education for inclusion. Changing paradigms and innovative approaches. Routledge.
Fostick, L., & Revah, H. (2018). Dyslexia as a multi-deficit disorder: Working memory and auditory temporal processing. Acta Psychologica, 183, 19–28. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.010
Geva, E. (1993). Linguistic and cognitive correlates of academic skills in first and second languages. Language Learning, 43, 5–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1993.tb00171.x
Gori, S., & Facoetti, A. (2014). Perceptual learning as a possible new approach for remediation and prevention of developmental dyslexia. Vision Research, 99(1), 78–87. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2013.11.011
Goulandris, N. E. Dyslexia in different languages: Cross-linguistic comparisons. Whurr.
Grünke, M., & Cavendish, W. M. (2016). Learning disabilities around the globe: Making sense of the heterogeneity of the different viewpoints. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14(1), 1–8. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301221227_Learning_Disabilities_Around_the_Globe_Making_Sense_of_the_Heterogeneity_of_the_Different_Viewpoints
Haynes, C. & Hook, P. (2001). Improve reading skills: Teach phonemic awareness, letter-sound relationships and letter patterns. The Network Exchange, 19(1), 1-9. https://es.scribd.com/document/96137885/Learning-Difficulties
Hettiarachchi, S., & Das., A. (2014). Perceptions of “inclusion” and perceived preparedness among school teachers in Sri Lanka. Teaching and Teacher Education, 43, 143–153. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2014.07.003
Hinshelwood, J. (1895). Word-blindness and visual memory. The Lancet, 146(3773), 1564–1570. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(01)98764-1
Hinshelwood, J. (1902). Four cases of word-blindness. The Lancet, 159(4093), 358–363. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(01)81505-1
International Dyslexia Association. (2016). How widespread is dyslexia. https://dyslexiaida.org/how-widespread-is-dyslexia/
Kahn‐Horwitz, J. (2015). Organizing the mess in my mind: EFL teachers’ perceptions and knowledge of English orthography. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 28, 611–631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11145-015-9541-8
Katzir, T., Shaul, S., Breznitz, Z., & Wolf, M. (2004). The universal and the unique in dyslexia: A cross linguistic investigation of reading and reading fluency in Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading disorders. Reading & Writing, 17, 739–768. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-004-2655-z
Kirby, P. (2018). What’s in a name? “Word blindness” was a recognized condition more than a century ago. But it was not until the 1970s that it began to be accepted by the medical establishment. History Today, 68(2), 48–57. https://www.historytoday.com/archive/feature/history-dyslexia#:~:text=Feature-,The%20History%20of%20Dyslexia,accepted%20by%20the%20medical%20establishment.&text=Today%2C%20it%20is%20more%20commonly,per%20cent%20of%20the%20population.
Koerte, I., Willems, A., Muehlmann, M., Moll, K., Cornell, S., Pixner, S., & Schulte-Körne, G. (2016). Mathematical abilities in dyslexic children: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Brain Imaging & Behavior, 10(3), 781–791. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-015-9436-y
Kopp-Duller, A., & Pailer-Duller, L. (2011). Dyslexia – Dyscalculia!? Dyslexia Research Center USA.
Kormos, J. (2017a). The second language learning processes of students with specific learning difficulties. Routledge.
Kormos, J. (2017b). The effects of specific learning difficulties on processes of multilingual language development. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 37, 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1017/S026719051700006X
Kormos, J., & Nijakowska, J. (2017). Inclusive practices in teaching students with dyslexia: Second language teachers concerns, attitudes and self‐efficacy beliefs on a massive open online learning course. Teaching and Teacher Education, 68, 30–41. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.08.005
Kormos, J., & Kontra, E. H. (2008) (Eds.), Language learners with special needs: An international perspective. Multilingual Matters.
Kornev, A. N., Rakhlin, N., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2010). Dyslexia from a cross-linguistic and cross-cultural perspective: The case of Russian and Russia. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 8(1), 41–69. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ906433
Kussmaul, A. (1877). Die Störungen der Sprache. Versuch einer Pathologie der Sprache. Vogel.
Landerl, K., Ramus, F., Moll, K., Lyytinen, H. Leppänen, P.H., Lohvansuu, K., O’Donovan, M., Williams, J., Bartling, J., Bruder, J., Kunze, S., Neuhoff, N., Tóth, D., Honbolygó, F., Csépe, V., Bogliotti, C., Iannuzzi, S., Chaix, Y., Démonet, J., … Schulte‐Körne, G. (2013). Predictors of developmental dyslexia in European orthographies with varying complexity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(6), 686–694. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12029
Loreman, T., Deppeler, J., & Harvey, D. (2011). Inclusive education: Supporting diversity in the classroom (2nd Ed.). Routledge.
Lyytinen, H., Erskine, J., Hämäläinen, J., Torppa, M., & Ronimus, M. (2015). Dyslexia-early identification and prevention: Highlights from the Jyväskylä longitudinal study of dyslexia. Current Developmental Disorders Reports, 2(4), 330–338. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40474-015-0067-1
Made by Dyslexia. (2018). The value of dyslexia: Dyslexic strengths and the changing world of Work. http://madebydyslexia.org/assets/downloads/EY-the-value-of-dyslexia.pdf
Martin, D. (2013). Researching dyslexia in multilingual settings: Diverse perspectives. Multilingual Matters.
McBride, C. (2019). Coping with dyslexia, dysgraphia and ADHD. Routledge. http://doi.org/10.4324/9781315115566
McCutchen, D., Green, L., Abbott, R. D., & Sanders, E. A. (2009). Further evidence for teacher knowledge: Supporting struggling readers in grades three through five. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 22, 401–423. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-009-9163-0
Morgan, W. (1896). A case of congenital word blindness. British Medical Journal, 2(1871), 1378–1378. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.1871.1378
Nassaji, H., & Geva, E. (1999). The contribution of phonological and orthographic processing skills to adult ESL reading: Evidence from native speakers of Farsi. Applied Linguistics, 20(2), 241–267. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716499002040
Nijakowska, J. (2010). Dyslexia in the foreign language classroom. Multilingual Matters.
Nijakowska, J. (2014). Dyslexia in the European EFL teacher training context. In M. Pawlak & L. Aronin (Eds.), Essential topics in applied linguistics and multilingualism (pp. 129–154). Springer.
Nijakowska, J. (2015). Foreign language teachers professional training needs on inclusive practices and dyslexia: The DysTEFL2 projects findings. In L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, & I. Candel Torres (Eds.), ICERI2015 Proceedings (pp. 1775–1784). IATED Academy.
Orosco, M., & O’Connor, R. (2014). Culturally Responsive Instruction for English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(6), 515–531. http://doi.org/10.1177/0022219413476553
Peer, L., & Reid, G. (Eds.) (2016). Multilingualism, literacy and dyslexia: Breaking down barriers for educators. Routledge.
Peterson, R., & Pennington, B. (2012). Developmental dyslexia. The Lancet, 379(9830), 1997–2007. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60198-6
Podhajski, B., Mather, N., Nathan, J., & Sammons, J. (2009). Professional development in scientifically based reading instruction: Teacher knowledge and reading outcomes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42, 403–417. http://doi.org/10.1177/0022219409338737
Press, L. (2010). Do gifted children choose their gifts? Optometry & Vision Development, 41(3), 133–136. https://www.lynnhellerstein.com/do-gifted-children-choose-their-gifts/
Redford, K. (2017). Dyslexia: Disability or difference? Educational Leadership, 74(7), 64–67. http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/apr17/vol74/num07/Dyslexia@-Disability-or-Difference%C2%A2.aspx
Robinson, D. (2017). Effective inclusive teacher education for special educational needs and disabilities: Some more thoughts on the way forward. Teaching and Teacher Education, 61, 164–178. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.09.007
Ritchie, S. J., Luciano, M., Hansell, N. K., Wright, M. J., & Bates, T. C. (2013). The relationship of reading ability to creativity: Positive, not negative associations. Learning and Individual Differences, 26, 171–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2013.02.009
Russak, S. (2016). Do inclusion practices for pupils with special educational needs in the English as a foreign language class in Israel reflect inclusion laws and language policy requirements? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20(11), 1188–1203. http://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2016.1155666
Schwarz, R., & Terrill, L. (2000). ESL Instruction and Adults with Learning Disabilities. Center for Adult English Language Acquisition (CAELA). http://www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/digests/LD2.html
Shao, S., Kong, R., Zou, L., Zhong, R., Lou, J., Zhou, J., & Song, R. (2016a). The roles of genes in the neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth network in developmental dyslexia: Single- and multiple-risk genetic variants. Molecular Neurobiology, 53(6), 3967–3975. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-015-9334-8
Shao, S., Niu, Y., Zhang, X., Kong, R., Wang, J., Liu, L., & Song, R. (2016b). Opposite associations between individual KIAA0319 polymorphisms and developmental dyslexia risk across populations: A stratified meta-analysis by the study population. Scientific Reports, 6(30454), 1–9. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep30454
Sharma, U., Forlin, C., Deppeler, J., & Guang‐xue, Y. (2013). Reforming teacher education for inclusion in developing countries in the Asia‐Pacific region. Asian Journal of Inclusive Education, 1(1), 3–16. http://ajie-bd.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/sharma.pdf
Sharma, P., & Sagar, R. (2017). Unfolding the genetic pathways of dyslexia in Asian population: A review. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 30, 225–229. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2017.06.006
Sayeski, K. (2019). Dyslexia. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 51(3), 170–171. http://doi.org/10.1177/0040059918820436
Shaywitz, S., & Shaywitz, J. (2020). Overcoming dyslexia: Second edition, completely revised and updated. New York: Knopf doubleday publishing group.
Sigurdardottir, H. M., Ívarsson, E., Kristinsdóttir, K., & Kristjánsson, Á. (2015). Impaired recognition of faces and objects in dyslexia: Evidence for ventral stream dysfunction? Neuropsychology, 29(5), 739–750. http://doi.org/10.1037/neu0000188
Simmons, D. (2015). Instructional engineering principles to frame the future of reading intervention research and practice. Remedial and Special Education, 36(1), 45– 51. http://doi.org/10.1177/0741932514555023
Snowling, M. J., & Melby-Lervåg, M. (2016). Oral language deficits in familial dyslexia: A meta-analysis and review. Psychological Bulletin, 142(5), 498–545. http://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000037
Snowling, M.J. (2000). Dyslexia. Blackwell.
Spafford, C. A., & Grosser, G. S. (2005). Dyslexia and reading difficulties: Research and resource guide for working with all struggling readers (2nd Ed.). Pearson Education.
Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1989). Exposure to print and orthographic processing. Reading Research Quarterly, 24(4), 402–433. https://doi.org/10.2307/747605
Stein, J. (2014). Dyslexia: The role of vision and visual attention. Current Developmental Disorders Reports, 1(4), 267–280. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40474-014-0030-6
Suárez-Coalla, P., & Cuetos F. (2012) Reading strategies in Spanish developmental dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia, 62(2), 71–81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-011-0064-y
Tops, W., Callens, M., Lammertyn, J., Hees, V., & Brysbaert, M. (2012). Identifying students with dyslexia in higher education. Annals of Dyslexia, 62(3), 186–203. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-012-0072-6
Tsagari, D., & Spanoudis, G. (Eds.) (2013). Assessing L2 students with learning and other disabilities. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2017). Fact sheet No. 40: Education and disability. http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/fs46-more-than-half-children-not-learning-en-2017.pdf
Venkatesh, S. K., Siddaiah, A., Padakannaya, P., & Ramachandra, N. B. (2013). Lack of association between genetic polymorphisms in ROBO1, MRPL19/C2ORF3 and THEM2with Developmental Dyslexia. Gene, 529, 215–219. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2013.08.017
Verhoeven, L., Perfetti, C., & Pugh, K. (Eds.). (2019). Developmental dyslexia across languages and writing systems. Cambridge University Press.
Verhoeven, L., & Perfetti, C. (2017). Learning to read across languages and writing systems. Cambridge University Press. http://doi.org/10.1017/9781316155752
Verpalen, J. M., & van de Vijver, F. J. (2015). Differences in neurocognitive aspects of dyslexia in Dutch and immigrant 6-7- and 8-9-years old children. Springerplus, 4(105), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-015-0874-1
Washburn, E. K., Joshi, R. M., & Binks‐Cantrell, E. S. (2011a). Teacher knowledge of basic language concepts and dyslexia. Dyslexia, 17, 165–183. http://doi.org/10.1002/dys.426
Washburn, E. K., Joshi, R. M., & Binks‐Cantrell, E. S. (2011b). Are preservice teachers prepared to teach struggling readers? Annals of Dyslexia, 61, 21–43. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23764822
Wydell, T. N. (2012) Cross-cultural/linguistic differences in the prevalence of developmental dyslexia and the hypothesis of granularity and transparency. In Wydell (Ed.), Dyslexia—A comprehensive and international approach. INTECH Open Science/Open Minds.
Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 3–29. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.3
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
This journal and its papers are published with the Creative Commons License Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). You are free to share copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format if you: give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; don’t use our material for commercial purposes; don’t remix, transform, or build upon the material.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).