Investigating Impact of Analysis Matrix Summarization Technique on Iranian University Students’ Reading Comprehension Enhancement
Keywords:Content-based academic reading, non-English majors, summarization, graphic organizers, analysis matrix summarization technique, reading habit, reading promotion.
The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of the analysis matrix, a type of graphic organizer, as a language improvement supportive attempt on fostering reading comprehension in an EFL academic context. The main question this study tried to answer was whether using this technique might enhance reading comprehension abilities among Iranian non-English majors. To achieve this goal, 120 nursing and microbiology majors were randomly selected from a population of the non-English majors enrolled for the Academic English course. They were divided into four groups of 30 and were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and two control groups. A pre-test of reading comprehension was administered to all groups. Then, they were taught passages to read for eight sessions with different methods; the experimental groups received a treatment of analysis matrix technique instruction while the control groups were taught with the traditional method, including no summarization instruction. A post-test of reading comprehension was finally administered to all groups. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to control the effects of the pre-test on the outcomes. The results indicated a statistically significant difference due to pedagogical intervention; the two experimental groups outperformed on the post-test after being treated with analysis matrix technique for eight sessions.
To reference this article (APA) / Para citar este artículo (APA) / Para citar este artigo (APA)
Bahrami, S., & Rahimy, R. (2020). Investigating impact of analysis matrix summarization technique on Iranian university students’ reading comprehension enhancement. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 13(2), 191–214. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2020.13.2.3
Anderson, N. J. (1999). Exploring second language reading: Issues and strategies. Heinle & Heinle.
Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Irvine, C. K. S., & Walker, D. (2013). Introduction to
research in education. Cengage Learning.
Baleghizadeh, S., & Babapur, M. (2011). The effect of summary writing on reading comprehension and recall of EFL students. New England Reading Association Journal, 47(1), 44–57. https://doi.org/10.5296/jse.v3i2.2644
Biria, R., & Sharifi, M. M. (2013). Graphic organizers and reading comprehension ability: Evidence from Iranian EFL university students. Sino-US English Teaching, 10(5), 358–365. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259849463_Graphic_Organizers_and_Reading_Comprehension_Ability_Evidence_from_Iranian_University_Students
Chang, K. E., Sung, Y. T., & Chen, I. D. (2002). The effect of concept mapping to enhance text comprehension and summarization. The Journal of Experimental Education, 2002, 71(1), 5–23. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/13372428.pdf
Chaury, P. (2015). The effects of strategy instruction on reading comprehension in English as a Foreign Language. Concordia Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 6, 2–24. https://doe.concordia.ca/copal/documents/1_Chaury_Patrick.pdf
Chmielewski, T., & Dansereau, D. F. (1998). Enhancing the recall of text: Knowledge mapping training promotes implicit transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 407–413. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1687
Ellis, E., & Howard, P. (2005). Graphic organizers: Power tools for teaching students with learning disabilities. Graphic Organizers and Learning Disabilities, 1, 1–5. https://s3.amazonaws.com/cmi-teaching-ld/alerts/6/uploaded_files/original_alert13.pdf?0=
Fisher, A. L. (2001). Implementing graphic organizer notebooks: The art and science of content. Reading Teacher, 55(2), 116–120. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20205022
Grabe, W. (2009). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. Cambridge University Press.
Grabe, W., & Stoller, L., F. (2011). Teaching and researching reading. Routledge.
Grabe, W., & Zhang, C. (2013). Second language reading-writing relations. In A. S. Horning & E. W. Kreamer (Eds.), Reconnecting reading and writing (pp. 108–133). Parlor Press and WAC Clearinghouse.
Graney, M. J. (1992). A framework for using text graphing. System, 20, 161–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(92)90022-U
Harris, T., & Hodges, R. (1995). The literacy dictionary: The vocabulary of reading and writing. International Reading Association.
Hibbard, K. M., & Wagner, E. A. (2003). Assessing and teaching reading comprehension and writing, K-3. Eye on Education.
Hirvela, A. (2016). Connecting reading and writing in second language writing instruction. University of Michigan.
Hodaeian, M. & Biria, R. (2015). The effect of backward design on intermediate EFL learners’ L2 reading comprehension: Focusing on learners’ attitudes. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2(7), 80–93. https://www.jallr.com/index.php/JALLR/article/view/162/0
Jiang, X., & Grabe, W. (2007). Graphic organizers in reading instruction: Research findings and issues. Reading in a Foreign Language, 19, 34–55. http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/April2007/jiang/jiang.pdf
Kamil, M. L. (2004). Vocabulary and comprehension instruction: Summary and implications of the national reading panel findings. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 12, 113–122.
Kiewra, K. A., Kauffman, D. F., Robinson, D. H., Dubois, N. F., & Stanley, R. K. (1999). Supplementing floundering text with adjunct displays. Instructional Science, 27, 373–401. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003270723360
Lee, Y., Baylor, A. L., & Nelson, D. (2005). Supporting problem solving performance through the construction of knowledge maps. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16(2), 117–131. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ726309
Lin, H. Y., & Chern, L. C. (2014). The effects of background knowledge and L2 reading proficiency on Taiwanese university students’ summarization performance. Contemporary Educational Research Quarterly, 22(4), 149–186. https://doi.org/10.6151/CERQ.2014.2204.04
Mall Amiri, B., & Sarlak, H. (2010). The comparative effect of summarizing and concept mapping on ESP learners’ reading comprehension of EAP texts. JELS, 1(4), 113–136. http://journals.iau.ir/article_510808_8fbc8fb0aa141d0381014c2326bb8b7a.pdf
Manoli, P., & Papadopoulou, M. (2012). Graphic organizers as a reading strategy: Research findings and issues. Creative Education, 3(3), 348–356. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2012.33055
McKnight, K. (2010). The teacher’s big book of graphic organizers. Jossey-Bass.
Mohammad Hoseinpur, R. (2015). The impact of teaching summarizing on EFL learners’ microgenetic development of summary writing. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills (JTLS), 7(2), 69–92. https://doi.org/10.22099/jtls.2015.3531
Naseri, H., Asadi, N., & Zoughi, M. (2013). The effect of teaching systemic-oriented summarization strategies on the reading comprehension of advanced Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics word (IJLLALW), 4(4), 74–87.
National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the national reading panel: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health.
O’Donnell, M. P., & Wood, M. (2004). Becoming a reader: A developmental approach to reading instruction (3rd Ed.). Pearson Education.
Pakzadian, M., & Eslami Rasekh, A. (2012). The effects of using summarization strategies on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. English Language Research, 1(1), 118–125. https://doi.org/10.5430/elr.v1n1p118
Palmer, J. C. (2003). Summarizing techniques in the English language classroom: An international perspective. PASAA, 34, 54–63. https://fs.libarts.psu.ac.th/research/conference/proceedings-3/3pdf/004.pdf
Parker, C. (2007). 30 Graphic organizers for reading. Shell Education.
Pearson, R. S., & Denner, P. R. (1989). Semantic organizers: A study for special needs learners. Aspen.
Praveen, S. D., & Premalatha, R. (2013). Using graphic organizers to improve reading comprehension skills for the middle school ESL students. English Language Teaching, 6(2), 155–170. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v6n2p155
Robson, C. (1993). Real world research: A resource for social scientist and Practitioner researcher. Blackwell.
Salehi, D. A., Jahandar, S., & Khodabandehlou, M. (2013). The impact of concept mapping on EFL students. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 3(3), 241–280. https://www.cibtech.org/J-LIFE-SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2013/Vol_3_No_3/JLS-32-37...the...comprehension.pdf
Schwartz, S. H., & Fattaleh, D. L. (1972). Representation in deductive problem solving: The matrix. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 95, 343–348. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0033669
Sotiriou, E. P. (2002). Reading to write: Composition in context. Heinle & Heinle.
Tarshaei, G., & Karbalaei, A. (2015). The effect of three phase approach on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 4(2), 362–372. https://european-science.com/eojnss/article/view/2592
van Merrienboer, J. J. G. (1990). Strategies for programming instruction in high school: Program completion vs. program generation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 6, 265–287. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312990037_Strategies_for_programming_instruction_in_high_school_Program_completion_vs_Program_generation
Wallace, R., Pearman, C., Hail, C., & Hurst, B. (2007). Writing for comprehension. Reading Horizons, 48(1), 41–56. https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/reading_horizons/vol48/iss1/5/
Wormeli, R. (2005). Summerization in any subject: 50 techniques to improve student reading. The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Design (ASCD).
Zafarani, P. & Kabgani, S. (2014). Summarization strategy training and reading comprehension of Iranian ESP learners. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1959–1965. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.629
Zahedi, Z., & Tabatabaei, O. (2015). The effect of blended teaching on reading strategy use by Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, 3(11), 25–38. https://jfl.iaun.ac.ir/article_559296.html
Zhao, R., & Hirvela, A. (2015). Undergraduate ESL students’ engagement in academic reading and writing in learning to write a synthesis paper. Reading in a Foreign Language, 27(2), 219–241. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1078373.pdf
Copyright (c) 2020 Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
This journal and its papers are published with the Creative Commons License Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). You are free to share copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format if you: give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; don’t use our material for commercial purposes; don’t remix, transform, or build upon the material.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).